Research interests focus on establishing the safest and most effective dosing regimens of therapeutic agents in animals, with a primary emphasis on small animals, followed by exotics and finally large animals. This broad research interest leads to studies at the cellular level (uptake of antibiotics by phagocytic cells and impact on therapeutic efficacy), organ level (role of drug metabolism in drug-induced hepatotoxicity), multisystems (pharmacokinetics or pharmacodymamics of drugs targeting the central nervous system [eg, anticonvulsants], cardiovascular system [eg, antiarrhythmics], gastrointestinal system [eg, antiemetics], and immunomodulators. Antimicrobial therapy has been a particular focus both at the level of the microbe (determining minimum inhibitory concentrations) and the animal (pharmacokinetic studies). Other areas of interest include novel drug delivery systems, and the impact of compounding on the safety and efficacy of drugs. In addition to these funded research interests, data from the therapeutic drug monitoring service at the Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory is used for both retrospective and prospective clinical research studies focusing on the clinical use of anticonvulsants and immunomodulators.